Alpine Plants

flowers and plants

Dianthus alpinus

File:Schneeberg - flower.jpg

Dianthus alpinus

photo from wikipedia.

Scaevola hookeri

text from wikipedia.

Scaevola hookeri

Scaevola hookeri (Creeping Fan-flower or Alpine Fan-flower) is a prostrate perennial herb in the family Goodeniaceae. It is native to eastern Australia. Leaves are 6 to 50 mm long and 2 to 15 mm wide. Flowers are white or blue with a yellowish throat and appear between December and March in the species native range.[2] The species was first formally described by W.H. de Vriese in 1850 in Nederlandsch Kruidkundig Archief and given the name Merkusia hookeri. The species was transferred to the genus Scaevola in 1856. It occurs in grassland and woodland in high altitude areas in Victoria, New South Wales and also South Australia where it is listed as “endangered”.

Historical use of Spikenard

from wikipedia. my memo.

Historical use of Spikenard

The oil was known in ancient times and was part of the Ayurvedic herbal tradition of India. It was obtained as a luxury in ancient Egypt, the Near East, and Rome, where it was the main ingredient of the perfume nardinum. Nard was used to perfume the body of Patroklos by Achilles in Book 18 of Homer’s Iliad. Pliny’s Natural History lists twelve species of “nard”, identifiable with varying assurance, in a range from lavender stoechas and tuberous valerian to true nard (in modern terms Nardostachys jatamansi).

Nard is mentioned a number of times in the Old Testament. It was used as one of the Eleven Herbs for the Incense in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. And it is mentioned twice in the biblical love poem, the Song of Solomon (1:12 and 4:13).

In the New Testament John 12:1-10, six days before the passover Jesus arrives in Bethany. In Bethany, Mary, sister of Lazarus uses a pound of pure nard to anoint Jesus’s feet. Judas Iscariot, the keeper of the money-bag, asked why the ointment wasn’t sold for three hundred denarii instead, (About a year’s wages, as the average agricultural worker received 1 denarius for 12 hours work: Matthew 20:2) and the money given to the poor. Two passages in parallel (Matthew 26:6-13, and Mark 14:3-9) speak of an occasion 2 days before the passover, in which an unnamed woman anoints Jesus’s head. The costly perfume she used came from an alabaster jar, and contained nard according to the passage in Mark. On this occasion, the disciples also protest, saying that the perfume should have been sold to benefit the poor.

The powdered root of spikenard is also mentioned in some Islamic traditions as the fruit which Adam ate in Paradise, which God had forbidden him to eat.

Spikenard is also used to season foods in Medieval European cuisine, especially as a part of the spice blend used to flavor Hypocras, a sweetened and spiced wine drink.

Spikenard was also used from the 17th century as one of the ingredients for a strong beer called Stingo.

Globularia

text from wikipedia.

Globularia

Globularia is a genus of about 22 species of flowering plants in the family Plantaginaceae, native to central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwest Africa and southwest Asia. They are dense low evergreen mat-forming herbs or subshrubs, with leathery oval leaves 1–10 cm long. The flowers are produced in dense inflorescences (capitula) held above the plant on a 1–30 cm tall stem; the capitula is 1–3 cm in diameter, with numerous tightly packed purple, violet, pink or white flowers.

Globularia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora virgatella.

Several members of the genus, such as Globularia cordifolia and Globularia punctata, are cultivated and sold for garden use.

Under the old Cronquist system of plant classification, they were treated in their own family, Globulariaceae, but genetic evidence has shown that the genus belongs in the family Plantaginaceae.

Most species are known by the scientific name as Globularia. They are also sometimes known by the name “globe daisy”, a confusing name as they are not closely related to daisies.

Gentiana

text from wikipedia.

Gentiana

Gentiana (pronounced /ˌdʒɛntʃiˈeɪnə/)[1] is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Gentian family (Gentianaceae), tribe Gentianeae and monophyletic subtribe Gentianinae. With about 400 species, it is considered a large genus.

Dianthus

text from wikipedia.

Dianthus

Dianthus is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native mainly to Europe and Asia, with a few species extending south to north Africa, and one species (D. repens) in arctic North America. Common names include carnation (D. caryophyllus), pink (D. plumarius and related species) and sweet william (D. barbatus). The name Dianthus is from the Greek words dios (“god”) and anthos (“flower”), and was cited by the Greek botanist Theophrastus.

The species are mostly perennial herbs, a few are annual or biennial, and some are low subshrubs with woody basal stems. The leaves are opposite, simple, mostly linear and often strongly glaucous grey-green to blue-green. The flowers have five petals, typically with a frilled or pinked margin, and are (in almost all species) pale to dark pink. One species, D. knappii, has yellow flowers with a purple centre.

Dianthus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Cabbage Moth, Double-striped Pug, Large Yellow Underwing and The Lychnis. Also three species of Coleophora case-bearers feed exclusively on Dianthus; C. dianthi, C. dianthivora and C. musculella (which feeds exclusively on D. suberbus).

The color pink may be named after the flower, coming from the frilled edge of the flowers: the verb “pink” dates from the 14th century and means “to decorate with a perforated or punched pattern” (maybe from German “pinken” = to peck). Source: Collins Dictionary. This verb sense is also used in the name of pinking shears.

Androsace

File:Androsace chamaejasme.jpg

photo and text from wikipedia.

Androsace

Androsace is the second largest genus in the Primulaceae. It is a predominantly Arctic-alpine genus with many species in the Himalayas (where the genus originated), the mountains of central Asia, the Caucasus, and the southern and central European mountain systems, particularly the Alps and the Pyrenees.

Recent molecular studies show that the genera Douglasia (found in north-western North America and easternmost Siberia), Pomatosace (an Himalayan endemic) and Vitaliana (a European endemic) belong within Androsace.

Plants of this genus are sometimes known as rock jasmines or fairy candelabras and are widely cultivated by horticulturists for its dense cushions covered in white or pink flowers. There are about 110 species.

Campanula

File:Campanula cespitosa.jpg

photo and text from wikipedia.

Campanula

Campanula (pronounced /kæmˈpænjuːlə/) is one of several genera in the family Campanulaceae with the common name bellflower. It takes its name from their bell-shaped flowers—campanula is Latin for “little bell”.

The genus includes over 500 species and several subspecies, distributed across the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest diversity in the Mediterranean region east to the Caucasus.

The species include annual, biennial and perennial plants, and vary in habit from dwarf arctic and alpine species under 5 cm high, to large temperate grassland and woodland species growing to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) tall.

Alpinum

“Alpinum” from wikipedia.

An alpinum (or alpinarium, alpine garden) is a botanical garden specialized in the collection and cultivation of alpine plants growing naturally at high altitudes around the world, such as in the Caucasus, Pyrenees, Rocky Mountains, Alps and Himalayas.

An alpinum tries to imitate the conditions of the plants’ place of origin, for example, large stones and gravel beds. One of the main obstacles in developing an alpinum is the, for the plants, non-natural conditions which exist in some areas, particularly mild or severe winters and large rainfall (e.g. United Kingdom and Ireland). This is avoided by growing the plants in alpine greenhouses, which tries to reproduce the ideal conditions. The first true alpinum was created by Anton Kerner von Marilaun in 1875 on the mountain Blaser, in Tyrol, Austria, at an altitude of 2190 meters above mean sea level.

Pasque flower

text from wikipedia. my note. I am very interested in this tiny flower.

Pasque flower

A pasque flower or pasqueflower (genus Pulsatilla) is one of about 33 species of herbaceous perennials native to meadows and prairies of North America, Europe, and Asia, valued for their finely-dissected leaves, solitary bell-shaped flowers, and plumed seed heads.

The pasqueflower is also commonly known as the prairie crocus, wind flower, Easter Flower, and meadow anemone.

Anthers are bright yellow and the bell consists of sepals.